In the article Anatomy of AI System the authors, Kate Crawford and Vladan Joier, are tracing the processes involved in the creation of digital devices. The authors are addressing the birth, life and death of those devices connected with the natural and human resources needed and involved in the process. The authors illustrate these processes by giving detail account of inner workings of the Amazon Echo and its artificial agent Alexa.
The three requirements needed to operate and AI – “material resources, human labor and data“(part 4) are connected with the lifespan (birth, life and death) of those devices. All digital devices require chemicals and materials which are produced in the natural environment in the spam of billions of years. Yet the lifespan of digital devices is less than a decade. In the process of obtaining those chemicals and materials another processes are employed – human exploitation, intimidation, child labor. Further, Amazon has not been transparent regarding several elements connected with the Echo. They are not disclosing how the Echo works, what larger clout system is connected to, and what information does it collect. This is very important omission, because the Echo is designed to analyze, learn and improve its AI algorithm based on the user's knowledge and interactions with the device. This makes the Echo “a consumer, a resource, a worker, and a product” (part 6). Amazon is also not disclosing the environment footprint their servers have on ecology. These AI system's connected with multinational corporations are known to have huge demand for energy and impact on the environment. The example Crawford and Joier give to illustrate this point is with the demand for latex produced by palaquium gutta tree trunks in the late 19th century. This demand for latex, which was used for electrical insulator, lead to the complete exhaustion of to the eventual extinction of the palaquium gutta tree.
People who critique moving pictures fall into 3 general classes:
1. Reviewers - are generally journalists who describe the contents and general tone of a movie, with only incidental emphasis on aesthetic evaluation.
2. Critics - are also journalists for the most part, but their emphasis is more on evaluation than on mere content description.
3. Theorists - are usually professional academics, often the authors of books on how movies can be studied on a more philosophical level.
I'm a film critic and I like to write about films that are exceptional and stand above the rest.
"The role of the critic is to help people see what is in the work, what is in it that shouldn't be, what is not in it that could be. He is a good critic if he helps people understand more about the work that they could see for themselves; he is a great critic, if by his understandings and feeling for the work, by his passion, he can excite people so that they want to experience more of the art that is there, waiting to be seized. He is not necessarily bad critic if he makes errors in judgement. He is a bad critic if he does not awaken the curiosity, enlarge the interests and understanding of his audience. The art of the critic is to transmit his knowledge of and enthusiasm for art to others." ( Pauline Kael )